Evaluation of conservation status

The conservation status of large carnivores is evaluated according to the implementation report of the Habitats Directive.

The starting point in evaluating the overall conservation status of a species differs from endangerment evaluations. Conservation status is evaluated based on biogeographical regions, which in Finland include Boreal and Alpine regions. Evaluation of the overall conservation status takes into account the stability and expansion rate of the natural distribution area of an animal population, as well as the size of the population, how it is developing, how the animal's required habitat is preserved and what the prediction is for the species' future.

Boreal region

Distribution area



Prediction for the future

Overall conservation status

Wolf   FV U1- FV xx U1-
Wolverine  FV U1+ FV FV U1+
Brown bear  FV FV FV FV FV

Alpine region

Distribution areaPopulationHabitatPrediction for the futureOverall conservation status
Wolf FV U1 FV xx U1
Wolverine  FV FV FV xx FV
Lynx FV FV FV xx FV
Brown bear  FV FV FV FV FV


FV   Favourable
U1   Unfavourable-Inadequate
U2   Unfavourable-Bad
plus  Situation improving
minus  Situation declining
xx   Not known, not evaluated

Sightings as the basis of population estimates

Natural Resources Institute Finland's (Luke) estimates on the numbers of animals are primarily based on sighting data collected by a volunteer organisation consisting of the contact persons of regional game management associations. Other utilised methods include on-the-ground censuses made by hunter...